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Canadian Studies: 5. Citing

Trent University Library guide to resources in Canadian Studies

Citation Guides by Discipline

Citation Guides by Style

APA Style

MLA Style

Chicago Style

Council of Science Editors (CSE)


Citation Guides For Unique Information Sources

Citation Style Manuals (Print & Electronic Books)

APA Citation style for Mobile App reference

The reference formats for apps are very similar to those for print and online reference works, with the exception that the title of the reference work is not italicized and is capitalized using title case. The version number and the description “Mobile application software” are also provided after the title to further identify the work for the reader. Here are two additional examples, one with an author and one without an author:

Deglin, J. H., & Vallerand, A. H. (2010). Davis’s Drug Guide for Nurses (12th ed.) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

 Naproxen. (2010). In J. H. Deglin & A. H. Vallerand (Eds.), Davis’s Drug Guide for Nurses (12th ed.) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

 In text, these would be cited:
(Deglin & Vallerand, 2010; “Naproxen,” 2010).

From correspondance between Ellen Olsen-Lynch and APA:

Lazer, Stefanie. <> (2013, February 26). Re: How to cite Mobile App content? [personal communication]

On the Fly Citation Creation Tools

Below are some sites for on-the-fly citation creation. These are helpful for quickly creating a citation. The Library does not endorse or recommend any particular product. If you have any concerns or questions about the citations being created by these tools you should consult the proper style manual (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) to verify the accuracy.

You can often get a reliable citation from a publication's record in Omni or in one of the library's licensed online indexes (e.g. PsycINfo, CINAHL); look for a "Citation" or "Cite" button when viewing your results.

Citation Management

Use a web-based citation tool to seemlessly create and organize your own personal online filing cabinet of references and to create bibliographies.